Travel with Audio Guide of Ephesus Selcuk


Ephesus (Selcuk) The first foundation of the ancient city of
Ephesus, within the boundaries of Selçuk District of Izmir Province was BC. It dates
back to 6000 years. In recent research and excavations, mounds around the Ephesus (prehistoric
hill settlements) and the Ayasuluk Hill where the castle is located, the Bronze Ages and
the settlements belonging to the Hittites were identified. In the Hittites Period, the
name of the city is Apasas. B.C. In 1050 the city of Ephesus, where the immigrants from
Greece began to live, began to live. In 560, the Temple of Artemis was moved around it.
Ephesus, which was visited today, was visited by Lysimakhos, one of the generals of Alexander
the Great. Was established in 300 years. Living in its Hellenistic and Roman times, Ephesus
had a population of 200,000 people as the capital and largest port city of the Asian
province. Ephesus, the Byzantine period has been re-displaced and the first time was established
in the Ayasuluk Hill in Selçuk. What is the most important characteristic
of the ancient city of Ephesus? Ephesus was a major port city between East
and West. This position of Ephesus as the most important political and commercial center
of the era of the development and capital of the province of Asia in the Roman period.
Ephesus does not owe it to its importance in ancient times. The biggest temple of the
cult of Artemis, based on the ancient Anatolian anatomical (Kybele) tradition, is located
in Ephesus. The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus is considered one of the seven wonders of
the world. Ephesus was an ancient Greek city located on the west coast of Anatolia, 3 km
far from the present-day Selcuk district, which was an important Roman city. It was
one of the twelve inhabitants of Ionia during the Classical Greek period. Its foundation
dates back to 6000 BC. The first foundation of the ancient city of Ephesus, within the
boundaries of the Selcuk District of Izmir Province was BC. 6000 years, the Neolithic
period is called until the period of the Polished Stone. In recent researches and excavations,
the mounds around Ephesus (prehistoric hill settlements) and the Ayasuluk Hill, where
the citadel were located, were identified by the Bronze Age and the settlements belonging
to Hittites. In the Hittites Period, the city’s name is Apasas. B.C. In the year 1050, the
port city of Ephesus, where immigrants from Greece started to live, was visited by M.Ö.
In 560, the Temple of Artemis was moved around it. Today, Ephesus was visited by Lysimakhos,
one of the generals of Alexander the Great. Was established in 300 years. Living in its
Hellenistic and Roman times, Ephesus had a population of 200,000 people as the capital
and largest port city of the Asian province. Ephesus was relocated in the Byzantine period
and came to Ayasuluk Hill in Selcuk where it was first founded. Ayasuluk, which was
taken by the Turks in 1330 and became the center of Aydınoğulları, started to shrink
from the 16th century onwards. After the foundation of our Republic in 1923, it became a touristic
place with a population of 30.000 people. One of the most important centers of the ancient
world, Ephesus, BC. Throughout its history, it has always played an important role in
the fields of civilization, science, culture and art. Ephesus, which is the main gate between
East and West (Asia and Europe), was an important port city. This position of Ephesus as the
most important political and commercial center of the era and the capital of Asia in the
Roman period has ensured. However, Ephesus does not owe its importance to the development
of the city as a major commercial center. The oldest temple of the cult of Artemis,
based on the ancient anatane (Kybele) tradition of Anatolia, is also located in Ephesus. This
temple is considered one of the seven wonders of the world. As Ephesus has moved many times
throughout its history, its remains spread over a large area. Excavation-restoration
and arrangement works were carried out in these ruins spread over an area of ​​approximately
8 km². 1- Ayasuluk Hill (The earliest settlement
dated to 3rd millennium BC and the Church of St. Jean of the Byzantine era, which is
of great importance for the Christian world) 2- Artemision (a major religious center of
the 9-4 th century; Temple of Artemis, one of the seven wonders of the world) 3- Ephesus (Archaic-Classical-Hellenistic-Roman
and Byzantine Period settlement) 4- Selçuk (Seljuk, Ottoman Period settlement
and modern city, which is an important tourism center today), Ephesus, an important center
of civilization in ancient times, today is an important tourism center visited by an
average of 1.5 million people annually. Ancient City of Ephesus Sections Harbor Street Liman Street (Arkadiane) is the longest avenue
in Ephesus that connects Odeon and the ancient port. The two sides of the street, which you
will feel as if you are walking in a historical parade, are decorated with magnificent columns.
This road, where kings were met and religious ceremonies were held, reveals the glorious
life of the period. Church of Our Lady Meryem Church is located to the north of Liman
Street. One of the first seven churches of Christianity in the world. It is also the
birthplace of the Catholic sect. Mary has a special meaning for Christians because it
is considered as için Mother of God anlam in this church. This is a place that calms
your soul with fresh scents of mountain thyme. Library of Celsus The Library of Celsus is the most spectacular
place in the ruins of Ephesus. There are four statues of women on the outer wall rising
in all its glory. After the death of the Roman senator Celsus, the library is also a memorial.
There is a sarcophagus of Celsus under the western wall of the building. The library,
which contains 14 thousand books at the time, was one of the most rich libraries of the
ancient times. So much so that the wise Herakleitos, dreamers Artemidoros, the poet Callinos and
physicians Soranos have played an important role in the upbringing of famous people. The
sun comes down behind the library in the afternoon, giving you a visual feast for creative photography. Grand Theater The Great Theater began to be built during
the reign of Emperor Cladius and was completed in 117 AD. This is the biggest theater of
the ancient world with its multi-storey and three-story stage structure and 24,000 seating
steps. It was used as a gladiator arena as well as theater performances. In vineyards,
various shows were held to honor the wine god Dionysos. The symbol of the theater is
the story of laughing and crying masks. The world’s most famous orchestras hosted world
stars such as Sting, Elton John, Joan Baez, Mikis Theodorakis, Ray Charles and Jose Carreras. Marble Street Marble Street provides transportation between
the Celsus Library and Odeon. Pedestrians are not forgotten on the street where cars
are used. The high platform on the side of the road serves the same as the sidewalks.
It is fascinating to have a human-centered understanding of urbanism for centuries. On
the street there is a woman’s foot and a marble engraved head. This marble, which is thought
to be the first advertising board in the world, depicts the
House of Love. Love House
Love House, which is the favorite place of the sailors coming to Ephesus, is located
at the intersection of Kuretler Street and Marble Street. The house is connected to both
the Celsus Library and the Skolastika Baths with a secret passage. It is known that the
men entered after a short ritual in front of the statue of Aphrodite at the entrance.
The mosaics depicting the four seasons on the walls of this house have witnessed how
many secret love they have witnessed. Kuretler Street Kuretler Street is the most functional street
of the city from Herakles Gate to the Library of Celsus. A large sewer system under the
floor covered with marble plaques proves the level of civilization that the city reached
at that time. The monumental buildings such as the Traianus Fountain, the Hadrianian Temple
and the baths of Skolastika are located on this street. Even the book is written on behalf
of the new inhabitants of the city, cute cats, the joy of your walk at any moment to add. Bath of Skolastika Skolastika Bath is a 3 storey building located
on the entrance of Kuretler Street. There are two characteristics that make baths important.
One does not charge the entrance fee of the poor. Perhaps the most important element of
civilization is the struggle against class distinction, and it is understood that they
provide everyone with the most basic needs such as cleanliness. The other is the use
of advanced technology compared to the period. The bath was not only used for cleaning, but
also for socializing and having fun. As I walk through the ruins, I feel like hearing
cheerful chats that are involved in rising harp melodies. Temple of Hadrian The temple was built to honor the Roman Emperor
Hadrian. It is one of the rare structures of the city that has reached today from ancient
times. There are interesting reliefs depicting the founding myth of Ephesus on the door girder.
The embroidery on it, despite the time after. Town hall The City Hall (Prytaneion) is a place where
diplomatic relations with the city administration are carried out and the halls are equipped
with god and emperor statues. Among the most valuable works of the Ephesus Museum, the
statues of Artemis were found here. At the altar of the goddess Hestia near the building,
a sacred fire was burnt. This fire represented the independence and immortality of the city,
so that it would never burn. Odeon During the period, city council meetings,
theater and competitions were held in the so-called Odeon. Odeon in the Ancient City
of Ephesus is a theater-shaped 1400-person area. Today, it hosts classical music concerts
and jaz festivals from time to time. Feel the healing and integrative effect of music
by sitting in the same places as the ancient civilizations of the ancient city. Temple of Domitian The Domitian Temple is located on the road
from Odeon to the entrance to Kuretler Street. The Ephesians built this temple to show their
gratitude to the facilities provided by the Emperor Domitian. Domitian was the first emperor
who made a temple in the name of Ephesus. Since the cult statue in the temple was destroyed
by the adoption of Christianity, there is no part of the head and arm that survived
to the present day. Female, left foot and heart figures In the middle of the street there is a woman,
a left foot and a heart figure, made on a paving stone. It is most likely an advertisement
pointing to the public house at the end of the street. Agora – Commercial Marketplace The Agora of Ephesus was first established
in the 3rd century BC and the last form was taken during the reign of Roman Emperor Augustus
(27-14 BC). However, in the 4th century AD, a large earthquake was damaged and it was
not used for a long time. In the 6th century AD, a new agora was built in the northern
section by using the remains. The part of the newly established agora today serves as
the Gendarmerie Barracks and it is forbidden to enter the area. South Gate of Agora The South Gate of Agora was built in the 2nd
century BC, financed by Mazaus and Mithridates, freed by the Roman Emperor. On the door, which
is quite fancy and ostentatious, the legislation and official declarations about the market
place were hanged and informations were made to the shop owners. As a result of an earthquake
in the 13th century it was completely demolished and rebuilt during the restoration work of
Ephesus. columns The architecture of the library was built
on an equivalent basis with the great imperial buildings in Rome, and the masters from Rome
were specially brought to this place. For the monument, which was intended to be flawless,
the perspective was misleading and the building was built on 3 floors. Furthermore, the columns
and beams of the right and left entrance doors were made smaller than in the middle and the
structure was shown to be larger than it was. Statue of Sophia (symbol: Wisdom and Mind) There are 4 sculptures at the entrance of
the library. These are sculptures that symbolize the virtues of Celsus. However, these are
not original, but one-to-one copies (originals in Vienna). During the lifting of the library
(late 1970s) they were taken to Vienna for examination and never returned. Celsus Library – Inside In the middle of the library, the hall with
a half-round niche forming the main axis has a rectangular plan. 12 thousand books in rolls
are stored in the niches of the upper two floors. After a long period of time, the Library
became the third library in the world with the largest library of books. The walls, floor
and roof are covered with marble slabs of various colors. Tomb of Celsus There are a number of people visiting Ephesus,
where they sit down and take a picture of the tomb of Celsus (below the ground that
appears in the photograph). In the empty area, there is a statue of Celsus in Istanbul Archeology
Museum. Finally, the son of Celsus, the governor of
the Asian province of the Roman Empire, spent 25,000 dinars on the construction of the building,
the purchase, maintenance, repair and the decoration of his father’s birthday. The building
was demolished as a result of a major earthquake in 262 and was burned during the Got attacks
in the same year. In the ongoing process, he saw a great earthquake and completely collapsed. Love House (General Home) Across the Agora and Celsus Library, there
are 3 general houses called “love houses tam. Although these are mostly places where
sailors came to the port city of Ephesus, they were one of the places frequently visited
by the men of the city, whose population was 200 thousand. At the same time the general
houses and the library were connected to each other under the underground passage. In other
words, they went to the general house by saying that the married men of Ephesus went to the
library with their wives. Hadrian’s Gate Hadrian’s Gate was built by the Roman Emperor
Hadrianus, who traveled around 117 BC. Andruklos Monument The monument to the Andruklos, the son of
Kodros, the king of Athens and the legendary founder of Ephesus, was made in the form of
a “U-shaped döneminde in the 1st century BC and was used as a fountain in the Byzantine
period and called the ef Byzantine Fountain kur. An Article written in Eutropius A little above the Andruklos Monument, there
is an open letter to the historian Eutropius, written by the Emperor Valentinian, his brother
Valens, and his father Gratian. The content of this manuscript on marble is that the material
source required for the restoration of the walls of Ephesus is that the officials collecting
the money collected by the tax collectors have their own embezzles and that they are
asked to help the historian Eutropius to correct this. Tomb Room (Oktagon) In front of the Slope Houses, there is a 9-meter
long, square-shaped pedestal that reaches the foundation only to the present day. This
pedestal and the sarcophagus of the Queen of Egypt, Queen Cleopatra’s sister IV. It
is thought to belong to Arsinoe. Arsinoe was the heir to the throne of the Kingdom of Egypt
and opposed the combination of Cleopatra and Roman Emperor Caesar. Cleopatra had him exiled
to Ephesus and threatened to kill him. Slope Houses (Insula) Yamaç Evler, which is one of the most important
parts of Ephesus, consists of two different houses spread around 4,000 and 1,400 square
meters. These houses, which were built with rich decorations and frescoes without any
expense, were generally used by the rich people of the period. Although the construction dates
date back to 200 BC, they have undergone four major demolitions and restorations until the
7th century AD, when they were used. For this reason, an unplanned construction was made
over the centuries and small blocks were built between the houses with 6 different seating
areas by building wall blocks. The researches that started in the 1960s in
Yamac Evler still continue today. The section called. Yamaç Ev-2 ında is closed and it
is for 15 TL (museum card is not valid). Toilet (Latrina) Rome’s toilet culture is quite different from
today. As you can see in the photo, the people side by side, male and female mixed in small
holes in their needs to fix. Underneath these areas, clean water flows and eventually reaches
the river or the sea with canals. Free and publicly available in almost all Roman cities,
including Ephesus, these toilets were frequently used by the locals. Because the houses of
the noble and rich in the period, except for almost no house under the city channel connected
to the clean water flow. So almost no house would have been a toilet. The clogged sewerage
channels are cleaned up by prisoners, and the women throw away water channels to kill
the babies they don’t want. Ephesus Museum, Ephesus Museum At the entrance of my writing, the pediment
I mentioned about Ephesus’s founding myth is located in the upper part of the Temple
of Hadrian. However, I would like to mention that the original is in the Ephesus Museum
and that the temple is imitation. In the left part of the pediment, the foundation
of Ephesus was revived and a group of frieze was found in the right section. These are
left-to-right: Dea Roma, Selene, (an unknown God), Apollo, Artemis, Androklos and his dog,
Heracles, Dionysus, Hermes, Hecate, Mirror, Aphrodite, Ares, Athena friezes. Baths of Skolastika The baths of Skolastika were first built together
with toilets and love houses at the end of the 1st century AD, and in the 4th century
it was named after the noble Christian woman from the Scholastic. The baths consist of
4 parts such as Caldarium (hot water), Tepidarium (Frigidarium), Apodyterium (dressing room)
and all other Roman baths. The entrance is free of charge, and all the people of Ephesus
can benefit from the 3 floors, nowadays, only the entrance floor can be visited (from the
distance of the 3rd floor, not counting the belt). Stele of Alytarchus Alytarchus, the most important religious leader
of the Roman province of Asia and the name given to the referee of the plays held in
theaters. 5 m wide marble mosaic in front of the Hillside Houses in Ephesus; It is decorated
with multicolored geometric, herbal and figurative patterns. It is understood from the inscriptions
written on the 4th century AD. Even though it has not reached the present day, the marble
mosaic is surrounded by a gallery (stoa). Trajan Fountain The Trajan was built between 102-114 AD on
behalf of the Roman Emperor Trajan. The original 2-storey fountain, which is 9.5 meters high,
was restored and rebuilt in a single storey. Traianus Fountain – Earth In the middle of the fountain, a piece from
the Statue of Traianus draws attention. The emperor is depicted by the earth under his
feet. Was it known that the world was round at that time, or does the ball, in the form
of a ball, mean another meaning, we do not know it. Traianus fountain (reconstruction) Some of the sculptures in the Trajan Fountain
are exhibited at the Ephesus Museum, some at the British Museum. Heracles Gate The Herakles Gate was built in the 4th century
BC and is only a gateway to the nobles of the city. The statues on the site belong to
the 2nd century BC. There is a lion skin in the hands of the statues. According to the
Greek myth, Heracles, according to the Roman Mythology, was the first of the 12 missions
completed by Hercules and expressed only the post of Nemea Arslanı, who was killed by
their claws. Memmius Monument The Memmius Monument was built in 30 AD by
the grandson of Roman statesman and general Sulla Felix (138 BC – 78 BC), and a fountain
was added to the northwest in the 4th century AD. Nike Relief Goddess of Victory In the face of the monument there is the relief
of Nike, the goddess of victory, who was commissioned by Zeus as a winged messenger. Temple of Domitianus The temple of Domitianus was built on behalf
of the Roman Emperor Domitianus (Domitian) between the years 81-96. This is the first
emperor temple in Ephesus. However, the brutal personality Domitianus and the fact that he
wanted to kill the aristocrats in the Roman Senate brought his own end and he was stabbed
8 times during a lunchtime as if prophesied (he was not alone at noon to prevent the prophecy,
but his maid said that on the day of the assassination, noon was passed). . After the murder of the
emperor, his name was damned by the senate (Damnatio memoriae). In other words, the statues
of the empire were destroyed and the public buildings were removed. The temple in Ephesus
was transferred to the Flavian dynasty. After the acceptance of Christianity and the lack
of power of the dynasty, the entire temple was dismantled. The part that appears today
is partly part of the building under restoration work. Pollio Structure and Fountain The structure of Pollio was built in 97 AD
by the stepson of Ephesus, the stepmother of the Golien Sektilius Pollio. During the
restoration work, his belt was lifted up again, corresponding to a height of 8 meters and
a height of 6.5 meters. Pollio Fountain (reconstruction) In the apse of the Pollio Fountain, there
was a group of statues that were brought here as a collection. These statues, nowadays in
pieces in the Ephesus Museum, describe Odysseus and his friends’ struggle against the giant
Polyphemos, the son of Poseidon. Odysseus and his friends offer her drinks to make her
one-eyed giant drunk. Then they will blind the other eye with the spears they prepare. Water Palace (Hydrekdokheion) The water palace, which had a small size but
had a size of 105 square meters, was donated to Ephesus in 80 AD by the Proconsul Gaius
Laecanius Bassus. Even though only the foundations have been reached to the present day, this
fountain, surrounded by stately statues on three sides, was Ephesus’ most spectacular
fountain. Water Tank (Nymphaeum) The water reservoir, which was brought to
Ephesus from 4 branches (Şirince, Derbentdere, Değirmendere), was built in the years 92-93
in the years of Proconsul Calvisius Ruso Iulius Frontinus. It is possible to see the remains
of water pipes in many places of Ephesus. State Agora Built in the 1st century AD during the reign
of Emperor Augustus and Claudius, the State Agora of Ephesus is 160 meters long and 73
meters wide. The agora, which had formerly held religious and political meetings and
was surrounded by three-columned galleries, also included offices of civil servants. In
the middle of the Agora is a temple dedicated to Isis, the god of Egypt. State Agora Baths The Roman baths built on a Gymnasium during
the Hellenistic period served as the resting and hiking places of the city. The baths,
which form a large building block, have not been excavated yet, and it is thought to be
an open courtyard that serves physical education and mental activities in the southern part. Basilica The Basilica of Ephesus was a commercial center
where merchants traded during the Roman Empire and had tradesmen changing money. During the
reign of Emperor Augustus, it was built by C. Sextillius Pollio in Ionic order with 3
naves. There are 67 columns on the façade and the head of the columns is in the form
of a bull’s head. The statues of Augustus and his wife Livia, who are also in the basilica,
are located in the Ephesus Museum. the Prytaneion Prytaneion is the name given to the buildings
where a city like city hall buildings are managed. Prytaneion, located in Ephesus, was
built as a courtyard surrounded by 3 sides in the 1st century AD (Augustus period). In
the first courtyard there is an altar and two small temples, in the second courtyard,
the office of the top executive of the city and the banquet hall in the third courtyard.
Also dedicated to Zeus’ eldest sister, Hestia, the eyen indestructible fire ateş symbolizing
the independence of the city was burned on Prytaneion’s columns, which are now being
lifted. Kuretler responsible for this fire. Church of Our Lady The Church of the Virgin Mary, which has been
repaired many times until the late Byzantine period, is one of the biggest structures of
Ephesus and it is 145 x 30 meters. In 461 BC, III. After the ecumenical consul was gathered
here, it gained a reputation. John lost his importance after the church was built and
served as a cemetery (note: this is not the House of the Virgin Mary believed to have
spent the last days of the Virgin Mary. It is 8 km away from Ephesus).