(AV06733 Cass 1) Clothing construction techniques


taking body measurements our body
measurements should be taken over desired undergarments or bodysuit it is
helpful to have another person assistant taking measurements a cord or tape
should be fastened securely around the waist and left until all measurements
are taken for the high bust measurement bring the tape around the body under the
arms but above the bustline the tape should be snug but not tight check that
the tape is parallel to the floor across the back to measure the full bust bring
tape around the body over the fullest part of the bustline again making sure
that the tape is parallel to the floor across the back front waist length is
measured by placing the end of the tape at the base of the neck in front and
bringing it to the bottom of the waist line tape back waist length is measured
by placing the end of the tape at the base of the neck in back and measuring
to the bottom of the waist line tape one way to measure the distance to the bust
point is to place the tape at the center of back neck bring it over the shoulder
hugging the neck and then straight down to the bust point finally the shoulder
length is measured from the base of the neck to the shoulder end or to the point
where a set and sleeve would be placed record these measurements for future
reference to measure the waist bring the tape
around the waistline this should be the smallest part of the torso the tape
should be snug but not tight the hip measurement is taken at the fullest part
of the hip this location will vary from one individual to the next check that
the tape is parallel to the floor record this measurement but also mark on the
body near the side seam where this measurement was taken then measure from
the bottom of the waist line tape to the place where the full hip measurement was
taken this is called the hip depth another useful measurement is the high
hip circumference taken 3 inches below the waist line measure around the body
at this point keeping the tape parallel to the floor this measurement is helpful
to determine the correct shape for the side seam on skirts and pants to determine the skirt length measure
from the bottom of the waist tape to the desired length near the center front of
these measurements the bust waist hip and back waist lengths are used to
determine figure type and pattern size to measure the upper arm circumference
first bend the arm slightly then measure around the fullest part of the upper arm
the arm length is recorded as two separate measurements first from the end
of the shoulder to the elbow and then the total length measurement taken over
a slightly bent arm – just below the wrist bone bending the hand slightly
helps in locating this point finally wrist circumference is measured
around the wrist just below the wrist bone remember that you must add ease to
your personal measurements when comparing them to the pattern altering pattern bust size this
alteration is made on the bodice front only alter the width for the bodice back
first as that will affect the total bust circumference and change the amount of
alteration needed on the front first draw some guidelines on your pattern
draw a line through the center of the waist fitting dart in the bust fitting
dart the point where these two lines intersect is called the bust point then
draw a line from the busts point to a position on the arm hole near the notch slash through the center of the waist
fitting dart to the bust point continue slashing to but not through the armhole
seam slash just to the stitching line then clip the armhole seam allowance to
that same point but do not completely separate the pattern slash the center of
the bust fitting dart to but not through the bust point spread the darts so that
the distance measured at the bus point equals one half of the amount of the
increase needed in the front spread the same amount at the waist this spread
also increases the size of the bust fitting dart notice that at all times
the pattern remains flat locate the tip of the new dart in the
center of the spread and redraw dart lines to the new dark point when this
alteration is made on a pattern it is a good idea to test the pattern in some
inexpensive material as it may require some further adjustments it really is
difficult to work on a pattern on a flat surface and to know exactly how well the
alteration will work when made up in fabric notice but when increasing the
front darts the distance from the shoulder to the bus point becomes longer
thus the dart becomes lower fold the dart and perfect the seam lines when
increasing the darts you usually have to lengthen the center front seam in order
to make a smooth waistline seam by cutting off the excess paper with a dart
folded you get the correct shaping to the end of the dart to decrease the bus
dart you slash the pattern in the same way as for increasing but you will lap
the pattern 1/2 the needed amount instead of spreading it as we did before
the amount of lap at the bottom of the dart is the same as at the top this
alteration will decrease the size of both fitting darts the dart lines will
need to be redrawn and the center front shortened to even up the waistline altering pattern hip size minor
alterations of less than 1/2 inch can be done by adjusting the seam allowance
alterations of over 1/2 inch should be done within the pattern by slashing and
spreading hip alterations are usually made near the side seam between the dart
and the side seam first dry line parallel to the grain line from the
bottom of the pattern to the waist line seem dry horizontal line to the side
seam at the fullest part of the hip this waist to hip measurement should be taken
at the time you are recording your measurements / along these lines – but
not through the waistline seam and to the side seam this second slash at the
hip line is necessary in order to be able to spread the pattern an even
amount from the hip to the hem line in order for the pattern to remain flat
while spreading you must also clip through the seam
allowance at the same two points be sure to clip only to the seam line so the
pattern will still be connected at these two points spread the vertical slash the needed
amount at the hip line and continue spreading the same amount to the hemline
mark this amount on a separate sheet of paper and then tape the pattern to the
paper notice that the spread decreases to
nothing at the waistline when the figure is balanced in front and back both front
and back pattern pieces are altered by adding 1/4 the total amount needed to
each pattern remember to spread the pattern an even amount from the hip line
to the hem line in order to maintain the shape of the original pattern this
alteration shortens the side section so to correct the hemline add the needed
amount to the side section to make a smooth hemline if there is a sharp curve
or bulge at the side seam in the hip area it can be made smoother by
redrawing the seam line the same procedure would be repeated on the back
pattern piece when a pattern needs to be decreased through the hip area the
pattern is first slashed in the same manner as above but is lapped rather
than spread dry line parallel to the slash line indicating the amount to be
decreased lap the pattern the same amount at the hip and at the hem line
tape in place the excess length created at the hem line in a section near the
side seam can be trimmed off to even up the hemline altering patterns sleeve length and
circumference body measurements taken from the shoulder to the elbow and from
the shoulder to the wrist are used in altering sleeve length alterations may
be made above or below the elbow to shorten the upper sleeve first draw a
line parallel to the alteration line indicating the amount of the alteration then fold along the alteration line and
bring the folded edge up to the marked line this makes a pleat that equals 1/2
the amount of decrease needed to determine the amount of change needed
compare your shoulder to elbow measurement to the pattern measurement
by actually measuring the pattern the seam lines may need to be corrected
following the alteration lengthening must be done by slashing and spreading
cut the pattern apart along the alteration line above the elbow on a separate sheet of paper draw two
parallel lines indicating the amount of lengthening also draw a line
perpendicular to these two lines which will aid in lining up the green line on
the two sleeve pieces tape the top section to the paper matching the grain
line markings position the lower section lining it up with a lower line and again
matching the green lines recheck the sleeve length from the top of the sleeve
cap to the elbow position and then continue on to the wrist if the total
sleeve length requires further adjustment alter in the same way on the
line between the elbow and the bottom of the sleeve complete the alteration by
redrawing the sleeve seam lines when a fitted sleeve does not provide
adequate ease through the upper arm it should be increased this measurement
should equal your upper arm circumference plus 2 to 3 inches of ease
before slashing the pattern trace the cutting lines of the sleeve cap onto
another sheet of paper this will be used later on the sleeve pattern draw a line
parallel to the grain line from the top of the sleeve cap to the sleeve hem
there should also be a line drawn across the pattern at the widest part of the
sleeve / on the vertical line through the hem up to the top of the sleeve
however be careful not to cut through the seam allowance / on the horizontal
line which we will call the cap line being careful not to cut through the
seam allowance in order for the pattern to remain flat
by spreading you must also clip through the seam allowance at these three points
be sure to clip only to the seam line so the pattern will still be connected at
these points place the sleeve pattern on top of the
tracing which was made earlier matching the two cap line markings spread the
sleeve pattern measuring the amount of increase at the cap line on this pattern
we are tapering the amount of increase to nothing at the wrist if it is
necessary to increase the wrist it can be done at the same time by continuing
to spread the pattern through the sleeve hem this alteration decreases the height
of the sleeve cap so use the tracing of the sleeve cap as the new seam line to
restore the original sleeve cap shape draw a new cap line from underarm to
underarm draw a new grain line marking making it perpendicular to the cap line the alteration to decrease the sleeve
circumference is done much the same way as increasing accept the pattern is
lapped instead of spread the mark on the cap line indicates the amount of lap the
sleeve may be lapped only in the area of the cap line or it may be lapped and
even amount through the sleeve hem since decreasing the sleeve circumference
increases the cap height the tracing of the original sleeve cap is used to
determine the amount to be removed from the top of the sleeve cap so will
resemble the original sleeve pattern the top of the sleeve cap would be trimmed
using the new line as the cutting line fitting pants patterns before taking
measurements for altering pants patterns tie a string or tape securely around the
waistline measurements and alterations should be done in the following sequence
as one alteration may affect the measurement for the next one the first
measurement to take is crotch depth to take this measurement sit erect on a
hard flat surface and measure the curve the size of the body from the waist line
to the flat surface to find the crotch line on the pattern dry line
perpendicular to the grain line at the widest part of the pants leg measure the pattern at the side seam
from the waist to the drawn crotch line add at least one half inch to the body
crotch depth measurement when comparing to the pattern measurement this mark
indicates the amount the pattern needs to be shortened when there is a
difference in the two measurements adjust both front and back pattern
pieces at the alteration line marked in the pattern to shorten the pattern take
a horizontal pleat in the pattern to lengthen the pattern you would slash and
spread the pattern the desired amount remember this alteration must be done to
both front and back the hip measurement can be taken next
measure around the fullest part of the hip keeping the tape parallel to the
floor check the placement on the back as well to be sure that the tape is still
parallel to the floor record this measurement then mark the location on
the body where this measurement was taken then measure from the waist to the
pin marking to determine hip depth on the pattern measure down from the waist
this amount and mark the pattern this is the hip line lap front and back pattern
pieces at the hip line matching the seam lines pin the two pieces together measure across the pattern at the hip
level remember not to include the seam allowance in your measurement since this
is only half the pattern double this measurement to determine the total
pattern hip measurement but thigh circumference measurement is
taken at the fullest part of the leg add at least two inches ease to this
measurement when comparing it to the pattern measurement before measuring the
pattern pin the front and back together along the inseam matching the seam lines measure across the pattern to determine
the pattern measurement remember that ease must be added to the body
measurement when comparing the two measurements if the thigh area needs to
be decreased it can be taken off from the inseam usually half the amount is
taken off the front and half from the back seam taper the alteration to
nothing at the knee if the seam line is curved you may use a French curve to
help draw the new seam line if the thigh area needs to be increased add an equal
amount to the front and back patterns at the inseam tapering the increase to
nothing at the knee the crotch length measurement is taken
from the front waist tape between the legs to the back waist tape add 1 and
1/2 inches of ease to this measurement when comparing it to the pattern to
measure the pattern pin the front and back pattern pieces together matching
the inseam seam lines measure the crotch seam line from front to back do not
include the seam allowance in the measurement stand the tape on edge when
measuring the curved areas remember to add about 1 and 1/2 inches ease to the
body measurement when comparing the two measurements the alteration can be made
to the front or back depending on body proportion and shape if the figure is
large or small and back adjust only the back this alteration is usually made by
slashing horizontally from the crotch seam to the side seam along the
alteration line spread the pattern in this area the necessary amount if the
amount needed is large some of the alteration can be added at the inseam